Home Home
Annotated Bibliography

Author(s):Berliner, D
Title:Our impoverished view of education reform
Short Description:This analysis of the role of poverty in school reform examines the relationship between poverty and academic performance and between poverty and the suppression of genetic talent.
Annotation:This analysis is about the role of poverty in school reform. Data from a number of sources are used to make five points. First, that poverty in the US is greater and of longer duration than in other rich nations. Second, that poverty, particularly among urban minorities, is associated with academic performance that is well below international means on a number of different international assessments. Scores of poor students are also considerably below the scores achieved by white middle class American students. Third, that poverty restricts the expression of genetic talent at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale. Among the lowest social classes environmental factors, particularly family and neighborhood influences, not genetics, is strongly associated with academic performance. Among middle class students it is genetic factors, not family and neighborhood factors, that most influences academic performance. Fourth, compared to middle-class children, severe medical problems affect impoverished youth. This limits their school achievement as well as their life chances. Data on the negative effect of impoverished neighborhoods on the youth who reside there is also presented. Fifth, and of greatest interest, is that small reductions in family poverty lead to increases in positive school behavior and better academic performance.
Link: View Full Text

Print Bibliography: HyperLink 

Is this item's link broken? Report Broken Link

Associated Keywords:
Achievement Gap
Low-Income Students
National Perspectives

Similar Items:
How does the United States stack up? International comparisons of academic achievement
Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects
Wealth mobility and volatility in black and white
Examining gaps in mathematics achievement among racial-ethnic groups, 1972-1992
Who's left behind? Immigrant children in high and low LEP schools
Achievement gaps: An examination of differences in student achievement and growth
Urban school reform: Achievement and school climate outcomes for the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP)
Beating the odds: An analysis of student performance and achievement gaps on state assessments: 2005-06 School year
School context, student attitudes and behavior, and student achievement: An exploratory analysis
A new way on school integration
New kids on the block: Results from the Moving to Opportunity experiment
Asian Pacific Islander American Students and U.S. high schools
Qualified teachers for at-risk schools: A national imperative
Who graduates in California?
Are teachers prepared for racially diverse schools? Teachers describe their preparation, resources, and practices for racially diverse schools
Consortium on Chicago school research at the University of Chicago
Baltimore city's high school reform initiative: Schools, students, and outcomes
Research brief: Practices that support data use in urban high schools
Course-taking patterns and preparation for postsecondary education in California's public university systems among minority youth
Turning around chronically low-performing schools
The Benwood plan: A lesson in comprehensive teacher reform
Given half a chance: The Schott 50 state report on public education and black males
The turnaround challenge: Why America's best opportunity to dramatically improve student achievement lies in our worst-performing schools
Race, schools, and neighborhoods: Reducing barriers to achievement
African American students and U.S. high schools
High school guidance counselors: Facilitators or preemptors of social stratification in education
Yes we can: Telling truths and dispelling myths about race and education in America
Parent power and urban school reform: The story of Mothers on the Move
Beating the odds: A city-by-city analysis of student performance and achievement gaps on state assessments
Education watch online
How well are states educating our neediest children?: The Fordham report 2006
Every child, every promise: Turning failure into action
Equality and education, A Century Foundation project
Racial transformation and the changing nature of segregation
Jonathan Kozol interview transcript: Source material for "Segregation and its Calamitous Effects, America's "Apartheid" Schools"
All students reaching the top: Strategies for closing academic achievement gaps
How far behind in math and reading are English Language Learners?
Closing educational achievement gaps for Latino/a students in Utah
How outreach programs are implemented affects student achivement
Middle-class schools for all
Helping low-wage workers persist in education programs
Achivement and attainment in Chicago charter schools
College readiness: Helping all students access and succeed in higher education
Education longitudinal study of 2002 (ELS:2002): A first look at the initial postsecondary experiences of the high school Sophomore class of 2002
Beyond access: Explaining socioeconomic differences in college transfer
Gap or gaps? Challenging the singular definition of the achievement gap
Race matters: Unequal opportunities in education
The Pangloss Index: How states game the No Child Left Behind Act
Closing the gap in science achievement: Using NAEP science assessment scores to analyze state trends
The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools
Understanding Latino parental involvement in education: Perceptions, expectations, and recommendations
Cities in crisis: A special analytic report on high school graduation
Beating the odds: The real challenges behind the math achievement gap - and what high-achieving schools can teach us about how to close it
School strategies and the "college linking" process: Reconsidering the effects of high schools on college enrollment
Avoidable Losses: High-Stakes Accountability and the Dropout Crisis
The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools
Still looking to the future: Voluntary K-12 student integration: A manual for parents, educators, and advocates
Middle school practices improve student achievement in high poverty schools
Charter high schools: Closing the achievement gap
The economic promise of investing in high-quality preschool: Using early education to improve economic growth and the fiscal sustainability of states and the nation
Opportunity in America: The role of education
College affordability for students from low and lower-middle income families
States' progress toward high school restructuring
Increasing the achievement of Native American youth at early college high schools
Closing the college participation gap: A national summary
Tracking achievement gaps and assessing the impact of NCLB on the gaps
Effective preschool curricula and teaching strategies
Placing college graduation rates in context: How 4-Year college graduation rates vary with selectivity and the size of low-income enrollment
Diversity, school, family, and community connections
Gender gap grows
Why segregation matters: Poverty and educational inequality
Vital voices: Building constituencies for public school reform
The seventh generation: Native students speak about finding the good path
Promoting school readiness through universal preschool
The unraveling of No Child Left Behind: How negotiated changes unravel the law
Student debt and the class of 2005: Average debt by state, sector, and school
African American achievement in America
The funding gap 2004: Many states still shortchange low-income and minority students
The challenges of financial aid awareness and college access
Primary progress, secondary challenge
Increasing the college preparedness of at-risk students
American student achievement institute
Foundation for excellent schools
College enrollment gender gap widens for White and Hispanic students, but race and income disparities still most significant new ACE report finds
Add it up: Using research to improve education for low-income and minority students
The link between high school reform and college access and success for low-income and minority youth
Choosing Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs): A closer look at Latino students college choices
Mounting pressures facing the U.S. workforce and the increasing need for adult education and literacy
In need of improvement: NCLB & high schools
A plan to improve the quality of teaching in American schools
Children at risk: Consequences for school readiness and beyond
Pre-K and Latinos: The foundation for America's future
Improving academic achievement in urban districts: What state policymakers can do
Successful bilingual schools: Six effective programs in California
Ensuring academic success for English learners
School readiness: Closing racial and ethnic gaps
A whole 'nother world: Students navigating community college
Looking to the future: Volunatary K-12 school integration
New faces, old patterns: Segregation in the multiracial south
A report on the status of Hispanics in education: Overcoming a history of neglect
The costs and benefits of an excellent education for all of America's children
The funding gap 2007
The funding gap (Spanish version)
The 4th annual AP report to the nation
The future of public education in New Orleans
Teacher credentials and student achivement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects
Access to success initiative
Second to none in attainment, discovery, and innovation: The national agenda for higher education
Supporting English language acquisition: Opportunities for foundations to strengthen the social and economic well-being of immigrant families
Modeling Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Campus practices that work for Latino students
Condition of education 2008
Federal education budget project
Engaged for success: Service-learning as a tool for high school dropout prevention
Early intervention programs: Opening the doors to higher education
Confronting the "new" American dilemma: Underrepresented minorities in engineering: A data-based look at diversity (Executive Summary)
Putting money on the table: Information, financial aid, and access to college
Completing College: Assessing Graduation Rates at Four Year Colleges
Transfer between community colleges and four-year colleges: The all-American game
The study of economic, informational, and cultural barriers to community college student transfer access at selective institutions: National estimates of transfer access and baccalaureate degree attainment at four-year colleges and universities
A new majority: Low income students in the South's public schools
Advanced placement report to the nation: 2007
Historic reversals, accelerating resegregation and the need for new integration strategies
White students are racially isolated
Economic mobility: Is the American Dream alive and well?
Economic mobility project
Their fair share: How Texas-sized gaps in teacher quality shortchange low-income and minority students
Realizing the college dream (English and Spanish versions)
Promoting a systematic focus on learning supports to address barriers to learning and teaching
Inside the black box of high-performing high-poverty schools
Educational vouchers for universal preschools
Proven benefits of early childhood interventions
Straight from the source: What works for first-generation college students
The learning season: The untapped power of summer to advance student achievement
The Breakthrough High School project
Raising the Bar: Policy Recommendations for high school reform
Gaining traction, gaining ground: How some high schools accelerate learning for struggling students
Educational needs index
Education Trust, Inc
Latino achievement in America
Challenging the myths: Rethinking the role of school counselors
Show us the money: Low-income students, families, and financial aid
High school graduation rates by race/ethnicity, limited English proficiency, free and reduced price lunch
Knocking at the college door: Projections of high school graduates by state, income, and race/ethnicity
Orange juice or orange drink? Ensuring that "advanced courses" live up to their labels
Improving urban student achievement through early childhood reform: What state policymakers can do
Miles to go: Louisiana
Voices in urban education
Who goes to preschool and why does it matter
Promise abandoned: How policy choices and institutional practices restrict college opportunity
Helping children move from bad schools to good ones
CPS: A leader in AP growth
Pathways to and through college: Linking policy with research and practice
State of decline? Gaps in college access and achievement call for renewed commitment to educating Californians
Enhancing high school reform: Lessons from site visits to four cities
Kids Count state-level data online
Talent Development Middle Schools
Dropout rates in the United States: 2004
College scholarships for Latino students: Are opportunities being missed?
CSO College Center: A student gateway to college access, opportunity, and success
Ithaca College - Frederick Douglass Academy Partnership
Academic pathways to college: Policies and practices of the fifty states to reach underserved students
Childcare and early childhood education: More information sharing and program review by HHS could enhance access for families with limited English proficiency
Socioeconomic school integration, Race, class, and integration: Gaining new insights
What role can dual enrollment programs play in easing the transition between high school and postsecondary education
How curriculum influences college persistence in Indiana and the nation
Cultural barriers to incurring debt: An exploration of borrowing and impact on access to postsecondary education
A new core curriculum for all: Aiming high for other peoples' children
Ticket to nowhere: The gap between leaving high school and entering college and high performance jobs
Mentoring high-school Latino students: Realism versus false hope
Public attitudes on higher education
It's kind of different: Student experiences in two early college high schools
Income of U.S. workforce projected to decline if education doesn't improve
Understanding and working with students and adults from poverty
The power to change: High schools that help all students achieve
Knocking at the college door: California state report
Funding Gaps 2006
SREB states lead the nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs
Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower-income families
Education watch Florida: Key education facts and figures 2006
California: State accountability report card 2005-06
Understanding recent changes in child poverty
Profile of undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary education institutions: 2003-04, With a special analysis of community college students
Demography is not destiny: Increasing the graduation rates of low-income college students at large public universities
Indiana's adult education and workforce skills performance report: Preparing adults for a brighter future
The Chafee Educational and Training Voucher (ETV) program: Six states experiences
Denied: Community college students lack access to affordable loans
Parent expectations and planning for college: Statistical analysis report
Starfish Initiative: Mentoring application
Unmasking the effects of student engagement on college grades and persistence
Afterschool programs as an oasis of hope for black parents in four cities
Transfer access to elite colleges and universities in the United States: Threading the needle of the American dream
Head Start participants, programs, families, and staff in 2005
Using socioeconomic diversity to improve school outcomes
Drowning in debt: The emerging student loan crisis
Opportunity adrift: Our flagship universities are straying from their public mission
An Overview of Tax Benefits for Higher Education Expenses
Back to basics: Improving college readiness of community college students
Starting right: A first look at engaging entering students
National Indian Education Study 2007 Part II: The educational experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8
Early intervention program and college partnerships
McNair scholar handbook
College For Every Student
On ramp to college: A state policymaker's guide to dual enrollment
A profile of the Ronald McNair postbaccalaureate achievement program: 1999-2000
Second to none in attainment, discovery, and innovation: The national agenda for higher education
Ronald E. McNair Postbaccaluareate Achievement Program: 2002-05 facts and figures at a glance
Out before the game begins: Hispanic leaders talk about what's needed to bring more Hispanic youngsters into science, technology and math professions
The connection strategy: Preparing young people to succeed in college and beyond
Connecting schools, families, and communities: Stories and results from the Annie E. Casey Foundation's education investments
The status of African Americans in engineering: Confronting the "new" American dilemma
The learning communities demonstration: Rationale, sites, and research design
Fixing No Child Left Behind
Squeeze play 2009: The public's view on college costs today
The impact of increases in Pell Grant awards on college-going among lower income youth: Results from a natural experiment
Counting on graduation: An agenda for state leadership
A profile of successful Pell Grant recipients: Time to Bachelor's degree and early graduate school enrollment
Why stop after high school?: A descriptive analysis of the most important reasons that high school graduates do not continue to PSE
Working too hard to make the grade: How fewer work hours and more financial aid can help California community college students succeed
Reaching all children? Understanding early care and education participation among immigrant families
2007 Kids Count Data Book
Starfish Initiative
Busting the myth that poor, urban schools can't succeed
High school dropout: A quick stats fact sheet
A college access contract
Characteristics of minority-serving institutions and minority undergraduates enrolled in these institutions
Graduation rate watch: Making minority student success a priority
Higher education: Tuition continues to rise, but patterns vary by institution type, enrollment, and educational expenditures
Dropout risk factors and exemplary programs: A technical report
A Better Chance.org
Overlooked gems: A national perspective on low-income promising learners
Recent participation in formal learning among working-age adults with different levels of education
The High Schools Hispanics Attend: Size and Other Key Characteristics
Using EXPLORE® and PLAN® Data to Evaluate GEAR UP Programs
Returning to our roots: Student access
Student African American Brotherhood
The progress of education reform: Closing the achievement gap
Opening the door to the American Dream: Increasing higher education access and success for immigrants
Access to college: The role of tuition, financial aid, scholastic preparation and college supply in public college enrollments
The alternative pathways project: A framework for dropout reduction and recovery
Education watch Florida: Key education facts and figures 2004
2005-2006 Alabama Board of Education report card: A state summary
Education watch Alabama: Key education facts and figures 2006
Postsecondary success begins with high school preparation
Educational programs and projects that address the needs of low-income students
Improving math performance
Learning in a new key
Balancing acts: How high school counselors view risks and opportunities of student loans
Enlace: Engaging Latino communities for education
The challenge of scaling up educational reform: Findings and lesson from First Things First
Locked up and locked out: An educational perspective on the U.S. prison pipeline
National association of street schools
Diversity and persistence in Indiana higher education: The impact of preparation, major choices, and financial aid
Bridges to success
Beyond the tunnel problem: Addressing cross-cutting issues that impact vulnerable youth
College is possible
Lumina Foundation for Education
National Pathways to College Network
Poverty and Race Research Action Council
A step toward college success: Assessing attainment among Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars
Rural education at a glance
Achievement in America
Pathways to a four-year degree: Determinants of transfer and degree completion
Educational attainment in the United States: 2003
Double the numbers: Postsecondary attainment and underrepresented youth
An overview of higher education in the United States: Diversity, access, and the role of the marketplace
The access challenge: Rethinking the causes of the new inequality
Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education: A two-tiered education system
How do educators’ cultural belief systems affect underserved students’ pursuit of postsecondary education
Locating the dropout crisis: Which high schools produce the nation’s dropouts? Where are they located? Who attends them
Persistence and attainment of beginning students with Pell Grants
Ladders of learning: Fighting fade-out by advancing pK-3 alignment
Breaking barriers: A case study of two high performing high schools
Student debt: Bigger and bigger
Destination university: A guide to college for students and their families (Spanish Version)
Paying back, not giving back: Student debt's negative influence on public service career opportunities
Engines of inequality: Diminishing equity in the nation's premier public universities
Paying for college: The rising cost of higher education
The advanced placement expansion of the '90's: How did traditionally underserved students fare
An exploration of what we know about the formation and impact of perceptions of college prices, student aid, and the affordability of college-going and a prospectus for future research
How do pre-collegiate outreach programs impact college-going among underrepresented students
Paying for persistence: Early results of a Louisiana scholarship program for low-income parents attending community college
Focus on families: How to build and support family-centered practices after school
The impact of advice on price: Evidence from research
Reforms that could help narrow the achievement gap
Educational equity center at AED
Talent Development High Schools
Coercive mobility and crime: A preliminary examination of concentrated incarceration and social disorganization
Georgia's HOPE scholarship and minority and low-income students: Program effects and proposed reforms
Lottery funded merit scholarships: Some lessons from the Florida Bright Futures Scholarship program
Indiana's 2006 graduation rate
Breaking through the barriers to college: Empowering low-income communities, schools, and families for college opportunity and student financial aid
National Urban League Scholarships
Income and financial aid effects on persistence and degree attainment in public colleges
Paving the way to postsecondary education: K-12 intervention programs for underrepresented youth
After Michigan, what? Next steps for affirmative action
Knowledge for practice: A training program for college access advisors
The money manual: A personal finance guide from the Hispanic Scholarship Fund
National College Access Program Directory
Higher education, higher cost and higher debt: Paying for college in the future
School and parent interaction by household language and poverty status: 2002–03
Do grants matter?
Missed opportunities: A new look at disadvantaged college aspirants
The school to college transition: Challenges and prospects
College knowledge: What Latino parents need to know and why they don't know it
College access in Indiana and the United States: A 2005 status report
Pathways to a four-year degree: The higher education story of one generation
How is school reform tied to increasing college access and success for low income and minority youth
Access for all? Debating in-state tuition for undocumented alien students
On course for success: A close look at high school courses that prepare students for college
Paying for college: Changes between 1990 and 2000 for full-time dependent undergraduates
First generation college students: A literature review
The mentoring of disadvantaged youth
Reaching out to diverse populations: What can schools do to foster family-school connections?
Education pays update 2005
Access to the most selective private colleges by high-ability, low-income students: Are they out there?
Convergence: Trends threatening to narrow college opportunity in America
College access: Results from a survey of low-income teens and parents
ACSFA policy brief: The toolbox and student aid policy
Increasing success for underserved students: Redesigning introductory courses
Connected by 25: Financing entrepreneurship programs for youth transitioning out of foster care
Financing asset building and financial education programs for youth transitioning out of foster care
No Child Left Behind: State report card 2005-2006
Closing the gaps by 2015: The Texas higher education plan
Condition of education 2002: Special analysis, nontraditional undergraduates
Preparing all Indiana youth for life in the global human capital economy
Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education: Profiles of twelve school districts pursuing socioeconomic school integration
Alabama: Featured facts from the SREB Fact Book on higher education
Women reap more benefits from higher education, study finds
Fact book bulletin: Latest data confirms a college affordability gap for students from middle- and lower-income families
From high school to the future: Potholes on the road to college
Adult learning in focus: National and state-by-state data
State policies to bring adult learning into focus
2008-09 EFC (Expected Family Contribution) Formula Guide
Overcoming obstacles, optimizing opportunities: State policies to increase postsecondary attainment for low-skilled adults
Enhancing student services at Owens Community College: Early results from the Opening Doors demonstration in Ohio
Voces (Voices): A profile of today's Latino college students
Building a culture of evidence for community college student success: Early progress in the Achieving the Dream initiative
Transitioning out of high school: A quick stats fact sheet
Center for native education
The family: America's smallest school
Evaluation of new century high schools: Profile of an initiative to create and sustain small, successful high schools
Child care and development block grant participation in 2005
Child care assistance in 2004: States have fewer funds for child care
Frequently asked questions about college access and success
The facts: Postsecondary access and success
Seizing the Measurement Moment
Student Aid Simplification: Looking Back and Looking Ahead
Providing effective financial aid assistance to students from foster care and unaccompanied homeless youth
From assets to school outcomes: How finances shape children's perceived possibilities and intentions
Economic state of young America
The status of Latinos/as in engineering: Confronting the "new" American dilemma
Center for Law and Social Policy
School funding's tragic flaw
A mission of the heart: What does it take to transform a school?
Leveraging postsecondary partners to build a college-going culture: Tools for high school-postsecondary partnerships
A matter of trust: Ten key insights from recent public opinion research on attitudes about education among Hispanic parents
National evaluation of GEAR UP: A summary of the first two years
Transitions to adulthood for homeless adolescents: Education and public policy